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When low-temperature ice covers the Arctic Ocean there is little evaporation or sublimation and the polar regions are quite dry in terms of precipitation, comparable to the amount found in mid-latitude deserts.
This low precipitation allows high-latitude snowfalls to melt during the summer. An ice-free Arctic Ocean absorbs solar radiation during the long summer days, and evaporates more water into the Arctic atmosphere.
With higher precipitation, portions of this snow may not melt during the summer and so glacial ice can form at lower altitudes and more southerly latitudes, reducing the temperatures over land by increased albedo as noted above.
Furthermore, under this hypothesis the lack of oceanic pack ice allows increased exchange of waters between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, warming the Arctic and cooling the North Atlantic.
Current projected consequences of global warming include a largely ice-free Arctic Ocean within 5—20 years, see Arctic shrinkage.
Additional fresh water flowing into the North Atlantic during a warming cycle may also reduce the global ocean water circulation.
Such a reduction by reducing the effects of the Gulf Stream would have a cooling effect on northern Europe, which in turn would lead to increased low-latitude snow retention during the summer.
It has also been suggested that during an extensive glacial, glaciers may move through the Gulf of Saint Lawrence , extending into the North Atlantic Ocean far enough to block the Gulf Stream.
Ice sheets that form during glaciations cause erosion of the land beneath them. After some time, this will reduce land above sea level and thus diminish the amount of space on which ice sheets can form.
This mitigates the albedo feedback, as does the lowering in sea level that accompanies the formation of ice sheets.
Another factor is the increased aridity occurring with glacial maxima, which reduces the precipitation available to maintain glaciation.
The glacial retreat induced by this or any other process can be amplified by similar inverse positive feedbacks as for glacial advances.
According to research published in Nature Geoscience , human emissions of carbon dioxide CO 2 will defer the next ice age.
Researchers used data on Earth's orbit to find the historical warm interglacial period that looks most like the current one and from this have predicted that the next ice age would usually begin within 1, years.
They go on to say that emissions have been so high that it will not. The causes of ice ages are not fully understood for either the large-scale ice age periods or the smaller ebb and flow of glacial—interglacial periods within an ice age.
The consensus is that several factors are important: atmospheric composition , such as the concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane the specific levels of the previously mentioned gases are now able to be seen with the new ice core samples from EPICA Dome C in Antarctica over the past , years ; changes in the earth's orbit around the Sun known as Milankovitch cycles ; the motion of tectonic plates resulting in changes in the relative location and amount of continental and oceanic crust on the earth's surface, which affect wind and ocean currents ; variations in solar output ; the orbital dynamics of the Earth—Moon system; the impact of relatively large meteorites and volcanism including eruptions of supervolcanoes.
Some of these factors influence each other. For example, changes in Earth's atmospheric composition especially the concentrations of greenhouse gases may alter the climate, while climate change itself can change the atmospheric composition for example by changing the rate at which weathering removes CO 2.
Maureen Raymo , William Ruddiman and others propose that the Tibetan and Colorado Plateaus are immense CO 2 "scrubbers" with a capacity to remove enough CO 2 from the global atmosphere to be a significant causal factor of the 40 million year Cenozoic Cooling trend.
They further claim that approximately half of their uplift and CO 2 "scrubbing" capacity occurred in the past 10 million years.
There is evidence that greenhouse gas levels fell at the start of ice ages and rose during the retreat of the ice sheets, but it is difficult to establish cause and effect see the notes above on the role of weathering.
Greenhouse gas levels may also have been affected by other factors which have been proposed as causes of ice ages, such as the movement of continents and volcanism.
The Snowball Earth hypothesis maintains that the severe freezing in the late Proterozoic was ended by an increase in CO 2 levels in the atmosphere, mainly from volcanoes, and some supporters of Snowball Earth argue that it was caused in the first place by a reduction in atmospheric CO 2.
The hypothesis also warns of future Snowball Earths. In , further evidence was provided that changes in solar insolation provide the initial trigger for the earth to warm after an Ice Age, with secondary factors like increases in greenhouse gases accounting for the magnitude of the change.
There is considerable evidence that over the very recent period of the last — years, the sharp increases in human activity, especially the burning of fossil fuels , has caused the parallel sharp and accelerating increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases which trap the sun's heat.
The consensus theory of the scientific community is that the resulting greenhouse effect is a principal cause of the increase in global warming which has occurred over the same period, and a chief contributor to the accelerated melting of the remaining glaciers and polar ice.
A investigation finds that dinosaurs released methane through digestion in a similar amount to humanity's current methane release, which "could have been a key factor" to the very warm climate million years ago.
William Ruddiman has proposed the early anthropocene hypothesis, according to which the anthropocene era, as some people call the most recent period in the earth's history when the activities of the human species first began to have a significant global impact on the earth's climate and ecosystems, did not begin in the 18th century with the advent of the Industrial Era, but dates back to 8, years ago, due to intense farming activities of our early agrarian ancestors.
It was at that time that atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations stopped following the periodic pattern of the Milankovitch cycles.
In his overdue-glaciation hypothesis Ruddiman states that an incipient glacial would probably have begun several thousand years ago, but the arrival of that scheduled glacial was forestalled by the activities of early farmers.
At a meeting of the American Geophysical Union December 17, , scientists detailed evidence in support of the controversial idea that the introduction of large-scale rice agriculture in Asia, coupled with extensive deforestation in Europe began to alter world climate by pumping significant amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere over the last 1, years.
In turn, a warmer atmosphere heated the oceans making them much less efficient storehouses of carbon dioxide and reinforcing global warming, possibly forestalling the onset of a new glacial age.
The geological record appears to show that ice ages start when the continents are in positions which block or reduce the flow of warm water from the equator to the poles and thus allow ice sheets to form.
The ice sheets increase Earth's reflectivity and thus reduce the absorption of solar radiation. With less radiation absorbed the atmosphere cools; the cooling allows the ice sheets to grow, which further increases reflectivity in a positive feedback loop.
The ice age continues until the reduction in weathering causes an increase in the greenhouse effect. There are three main contributors from the layout of the continents that obstruct the movement of warm water to the poles: .
Since today's Earth has a continent over the South Pole and an almost land-locked ocean over the North Pole, geologists believe that Earth will continue to experience glacial periods in the geologically near future.
Some scientists believe that the Himalayas are a major factor in the current ice age, because these mountains have increased Earth's total rainfall and therefore the rate at which carbon dioxide is washed out of the atmosphere, decreasing the greenhouse effect.
The history of the Himalayas broadly fits the long-term decrease in Earth's average temperature since the mid-Eocene , 40 million years ago.
Another important contribution to ancient climate regimes is the variation of ocean currents , which are modified by continent position, sea levels and salinity, as well as other factors.
They have the ability to cool e. The closing of the Isthmus of Panama about 3 million years ago may have ushered in the present period of strong glaciation over North America by ending the exchange of water between the tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Analyses suggest that ocean current fluctuations can adequately account for recent glacial oscillations. This realigned the thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic, increasing heat transport into the Arctic, which melted the polar ice accumulation and reduced other continental ice sheets.
The release of water raised sea levels again, restoring the ingress of colder water from the Pacific with an accompanying shift to northern hemisphere ice accumulation.
According to Kuhle, the plate-tectonic uplift of Tibet past the snow-line has led to a surface of c. The reflection of energy into space resulted in a global cooling, triggering the Pleistocene Ice Age.
Because this highland is at a subtropical latitude, with 4 to 5 times the insolation of high-latitude areas, what would be Earth's strongest heating surface has turned into a cooling surface.
Kuhle explains the interglacial periods by the ,year cycle of radiation changes due to variations in Earth's orbit.
This comparatively insignificant warming, when combined with the lowering of the Nordic inland ice areas and Tibet due to the weight of the superimposed ice-load, has led to the repeated complete thawing of the inland ice areas.
The Milankovitch cycles are a set of cyclic variations in characteristics of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. Each cycle has a different length, so at some times their effects reinforce each other and at other times they partially cancel each other.
There is strong evidence that the Milankovitch cycles affect the occurrence of glacial and interglacial periods within an ice age.
The present ice age is the most studied and best understood, particularly the last , years, since this is the period covered by ice cores that record atmospheric composition and proxies for temperature and ice volume.
The combined effects of the changing distance to the Sun, the precession of the Earth's axis , and the changing tilt of the Earth's axis redistribute the sunlight received by the Earth.
Of particular importance are changes in the tilt of the Earth's axis, which affect the intensity of seasons.
It is widely believed that ice sheets advance when summers become too cool to melt all of the accumulated snowfall from the previous winter.
Some believe that the strength of the orbital forcing is too small to trigger glaciations, but feedback mechanisms like CO 2 may explain this mismatch.
While Milankovitch forcing predicts that cyclic changes in the Earth's orbital elements can be expressed in the glaciation record, additional explanations are necessary to explain which cycles are observed to be most important in the timing of glacial—interglacial periods.
In particular, during the last , years, the dominant period of glacial—interglacial oscillation has been , years, which corresponds to changes in Earth's orbital eccentricity and orbital inclination.
Yet this is by far the weakest of the three frequencies predicted by Milankovitch. During the period 3. The reasons for dominance of one frequency versus another are poorly understood and an active area of current research, but the answer probably relates to some form of resonance in the Earth's climate system.
Recent work suggests that the K year cycle dominates due to increased southern-pole sea-ice increasing total solar reflectivity.
The "traditional" Milankovitch explanation struggles to explain the dominance of the ,year cycle over the last 8 cycles. Richard A.
Muller , Gordon J. MacDonald ,    and others have pointed out that those calculations are for a two-dimensional orbit of Earth but the three-dimensional orbit also has a ,year cycle of orbital inclination.
They proposed that these variations in orbital inclination lead to variations in insolation, as the Earth moves in and out of known dust bands in the solar system.
Although this is a different mechanism to the traditional view, the "predicted" periods over the last , years are nearly the same.
Another worker, William Ruddiman , has suggested a model that explains the ,year cycle by the modulating effect of eccentricity weak ,year cycle on precession 26,year cycle combined with greenhouse gas feedbacks in the 41, and 26,year cycles.
Yet another theory has been advanced by Peter Huybers who argued that the 41,year cycle has always been dominant, but that the Earth has entered a mode of climate behavior where only the second or third cycle triggers an ice age.
This would imply that the ,year periodicity is really an illusion created by averaging together cycles lasting 80, and , years.
The jumps are induced by the orbital forcing, while in the early Pleistocene the 41,year glacial cycles resulted from jumps between only two climate states.
A dynamical model explaining this behavior was proposed by Peter Ditlevsen. At times during the paleoclimate, carbon dioxide levels were two or three times greater than today.
Volcanoes and movements in continental plates contributed to high amounts of CO 2 in the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide from volcanoes probably contributed to periods with highest overall temperatures. The current geological period, the Quaternary , which began about 2.
The last cold episode of the last glacial period ended about 10, years ago. The major glacial stages of the current ice age in North America are the Illinoian , Eemian and Wisconsin glaciation.
The use of the Nebraskan, Afton, Kansan, and Yarmouthian stages to subdivide the ice age in North America has been discontinued by Quaternary geologists and geomorphologists.
These stages have all been merged into the Pre-Illinoian in the s. During the most recent North American glaciation, during the latter part of the Last Glacial Maximum 26, to 13, years ago , ice sheets extended to about 45th parallel north.
These sheets were 3 to 4 kilometres 1. This Wisconsin glaciation left widespread impacts on the North American landscape.
The Great Lakes and the Finger Lakes were carved by ice deepening old valleys. Most of the lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin were gouged out by glaciers and later filled with glacial meltwaters.
The old Teays River drainage system was radically altered and largely reshaped into the Ohio River drainage system.
Other rivers were dammed and diverted to new channels, such as Niagara Falls , which formed a dramatic waterfall and gorge, when the waterflow encountered a limestone escarpment.
The area from Long Island to Nantucket, Massachusetts was formed from glacial till , and the plethora of lakes on the Canadian Shield in northern Canada can be almost entirely attributed to the action of the ice.
As the ice retreated and the rock dust dried, winds carried the material hundreds of miles, forming beds of loess many dozens of feet thick in the Missouri Valley.
Post-glacial rebound continues to reshape the Great Lakes and other areas formerly under the weight of the ice sheets.
The Driftless Area , a portion of western and southwestern Wisconsin along with parts of adjacent Minnesota , Iowa , and Illinois , was not covered by glaciers.
A specially interesting climatic change during glacial times has taken place in the semi-arid Andes.
Beside the expected cooling down in comparison with the current climate, a significant precipitation change happened here. From this follows that—beside of an annual depression of temperature about c.
Accordingly, at glacial times the humid climatic belt that today is situated several latitude degrees further to the S, was shifted much further to the N.
Although the last glacial period ended more than 8, years ago, its effects can still be felt today. The erratic boulders , till , drumlins , eskers , fjords , kettle lakes , moraines , cirques , horns , etc.
The weight of the ice sheets was so great that they deformed the Earth's crust and mantle. After the ice sheets melted, the ice-covered land rebounded.
During glaciation, water was taken from the oceans to form the ice at high latitudes, thus global sea level dropped by about meters, exposing the continental shelves and forming land-bridges between land-masses for animals to migrate.
During deglaciation , the melted ice-water returned to the oceans, causing sea level to rise. This process can cause sudden shifts in coastlines and hydration systems resulting in newly submerged lands, emerging lands, collapsed ice dams resulting in salination of lakes, new ice dams creating vast areas of freshwater, and a general alteration in regional weather patterns on a large but temporary scale.
It can even cause temporary reglaciation. This type of chaotic pattern of rapidly changing land, ice, saltwater and freshwater has been proposed as the likely model for the Baltic and Scandinavian regions, as well as much of central North America at the end of the last glacial maximum, with the present-day coastlines only being achieved in the last few millennia of prehistory.
Also, the effect of elevation on Scandinavia submerged a vast continental plain that had existed under much of what is now the North Sea, connecting the British Isles to Continental Europe.
The redistribution of ice-water on the surface of the Earth and the flow of mantle rocks causes changes in the gravitational field as well as changes to the distribution of the moment of inertia of the Earth.
These changes to the moment of inertia result in a change in the angular velocity , axis , and wobble of the Earth's rotation. The weight of the redistributed surface mass loaded the lithosphere , caused it to flex and also induced stress within the Earth.
The presence of the glaciers generally suppressed the movement of faults below. Earthquakes triggered near the ice margin may in turn accelerate ice calving and may account for the Heinrich events.
In Europe, glacial erosion and isostatic sinking from weight of ice made the Baltic Sea , which before the Ice Age was all land drained by the Eridanos River.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a generic geological period of temperature reduction. For the most recent glacial period commonly referred to as the Ice Age, see Last glacial period and Pleistocene.
For other uses, see Ice age disambiguation. Period of long-term reduction in temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere. See also: History of climate change science.
Main article: Timeline of glaciation. See also: Glacial period and Interglacial. Minimum and maximum glaciation.
Minimum interglacial, black and maximum glacial, grey glaciation of the northern hemisphere. Minimum interglacial, black and maximum glacial, grey glaciation of the southern hemisphere.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Glacial history of Minnesota. See also: Glacial landform.
Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Retrieved 7 January Ice ages: solving the mystery.
Comptes Rendus Geoscience in French. Bibcode : CRGeo. Note: p. In Mathews, C. The annals of Mont Blanc. London: Unwin.
Discovering the Ice Ages. The Earth in Decay. A History of British Geomorphology — Cunningham, Frank F.
James David Forbes. Pioneer Scottish Glaciologist. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. Scientific American. Nature Geoscience.
Bibcode : NatGe November The Geographical Journal. Evaporites: sediments, resources and hydrocarbons. Oxford University Press.
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